27 July 2012

In case you were wondering…

In case you were wondering why half the hymns have disappeared from this site, here is a shameless plug promoting the book where all those translations (largely updated and improved since the last time readers of this blog saw them) will be found bound up in one handy volume:

Sketch of cover design.
I'm pleased to announce (having entered the contract stage) that Concordia Publishing House  has agreed to publish my translations of the missing hymns from KELG, together with the other hymns already translated (such as those in ELHB and TLH), and other material from the Church hymnbook for evangelical Lutheran congregations of the unaltered Augsburg Confession, tentatively to be released later this year—incidentally, the 125th anniversary of the death of the blessed Dr. C. F. W. Walther, the person chiefly responsible for the production of the German original.

Not poised as an official synodical hymnal but primarily as a translation of a historical document with high devotional potential for modern users, it will be published under CPH's Peer Review process, which allows books that would not normally be published (because of, e.g., their relative niche value, the difficulty these days of keeping dedicated in-house editors, etc.) to see the light of day.

Along with a professional and informative historical introduction by Rev. Jon D. Vieker (translator of LSB 596, inter alia), the translation comprises all the hymnody with all the stanzas from the 1847/1892 editions of the hymnal, along with other KELG material, including prayers and collects gathered from Luther, Rabus, and Arndt, KELG's version of the passion harmony, and the history of the destruction of Jerusalem. These materials are augmented by furhter appendices, notably a translation of the old Saxon divine service for Sunday mornings, and 55 supplementary tunes in 4-part notation, for all the tunes needed which do not appear in CPH hymnals from the time of TLH on.

While having all the non-original material itself conveniently collected in one volume will be a unique value in itself, the addition of all the newly translated material will serve as a rich and informative resource for history students and hymn-singers alike. Scholars of Lutheranism in America, as well as anybody who has an passing interest in the Church's hymnody and confessions, should be pleased and edified by this translation of the Church Hymnbook.

Matthew Carver
Ss. Aurelius & Natalia, Martyrs, A.D. 2012.

11 July 2012

Second Revision of KELG Part III: Melodies.

Lehre und Wehre.
Volume 55. Nov. 1909. No. 11.
(pp. 198ff.)

III. The Melody Specifications.

In the feedback to the delegate convention relating to the need for revising our hymnal, there was attention given to blunders in the assignments of melodies for many of the hymns in our hymnal. The committee for assessing the feedback was provided with the necessary documents and notified as well that, in the event that the synod is so inclined to undertake a revision of its hymnal, this part of the task should only be committed to the hands of experts. This was done. The commission on the hymnal instituted by the synod turned to men in our circles who have a vocation in the field of hymnody and musicology with the assignment of examining the hymns of our hymnal with respect to the correctness of the appointment of their melodies.1 It was obvious that, in the process, individual taste was not to serve a yardstick for what should be changed or left alone, so that a predilection toward this or that melody could not be the deciding factor, but that certain principles had to be followed which could not change in the course of time according to taste but were always applicable. After careful consideration of the reports submitted by the members of the subcommission and a detailed examination of the suggestions made by them, the commission on the hymnal can now present the following results, beginning with the guidelines operative for both commissions.

Our church possesses a rich treasury of melodies which, when employed extensively and in a intentional way, cannot but serve to give our divine services a greater and greater sense of beauty. For this to occur, every melody must be recognized and valued in its quality and viewed in its beauty and peculiar characteristics. There will be some who ask whether melodies in fact have any character. A hymn tune is a hymn tune. What kind of particular features do these melodies have and how should they be distinguished from other melodies except by key and meter? This is an error, and where this erroneous opinion reigns, any given hymn of like meter will be appointed whatever melody appeals to taste or is easiest to sing. Where there is no sense for the characteristics of the melody, one might think that “Lord Keep Us Steadfast in Thy Word” could be sung to the tune for “From Heav’n Above to Earth I Come,” or “From Depths of Woe I Cry to Thee” sung to the tune for “All Glory Be to God Alone.” Many a jarring example could be cited to show that this is no exaggeration. We have a hymnal in front of us that was published some years ago in which we find the melody “Vom Himmel Hoch” [From Heav’n Above] sung on Ascension and Pentecost, at harvest, at a committal, and at the consecration of a school building, and “Herzlich tut mich verlangen” [My Heart Is Filled with Longing] sung at Christmas. The most astonishing, however, is the use of the melody “Wer weiß, wie nahe mir mein Ende” [Who Knows When Death May Overtake Me] for singing hymns from the sections for Sunday, Morning, Confirmation, and even Dedication of an Organ! Now that is what you call pushing praxis to the extreme. Now, does anything similar happen in our hymnal? Can anyone think of something more wrong than having the deeply stirring Passion hymn, “Der am Kreuz ist meine Liebe” (KELG #71) [Jesus Crucified Possesses], sung to the lightly prancing melody, “Werde munter, mein Gemüte” [Sink Not Yet, My Soul, to Slumber]? Or would anyone seriously suggest that the melody, “Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier” [Dearest Jesus, We Are Here] is fitting for the contents of the passion hymn, “Meine Seel’, ermuntre dich” [O My Soul, Take Comfort, See] (KELG #81)? And we find plenty of such cases in our current hymnal. Granted, the committee is aware that the melodies appointed to the hymns are only a help, and that because of the relative unfamiliarity of their proper melodies these hymns can only be sung by a handful of our congregations. But the committee is also convinced that it is just such an unprincipled handling of our melodies that clouds the judgment of the singing congregation and ruins its taste. Here it is apparent how much can be done in our circles to improve the hymnody, namely, that they are not only sung correctly in respect to their rhythms, but also to the right choice of melodies, and that there is attention given to rehearsing them.

Just as hymn lyrics have their own character, so do hymn melodies, and the character of the melody has to fit precisely with the lyric. This is a principle of greatest importance. The more innate and characteristic this connection is, the greater the effect of the hymn when sung. From this is follows that taking one of our melodies originally appointed for only one hymn text and using it for another text requires the greatest precaution so that two things are not linked together that do not belong together. If this happens, the effect of these hymns that lack their own tune suffers, and—what is even more significant—the tune itself suffers. When they are used thoughtlessly for every possible text, the congregation loses its sensitivity for the characteristics of the melody; this creates a meaningless array of tunes whose only value lies in the fact that any text of a certain meter can be sung to them. In this way monotony and colorlessness enter into the hymnody of the divine service. In addition, this comes: When a melody is chosen at will, or if one melody is used for a certain text today and another tomorrow, no firm tradition can be built up in the congregation, and the divine service is impoverished in its characteristic movement and in the means for giving it the desired variety. 

Characteristic variety does not consist of colorfully trading off melodies of the same meter between hymn texts, but of choosing the melody that fits the text and allowing the melody to be heard in the right place and at the right time. Then the golden apples of our hymns are provided with the silver settings of melody. There are hence two things to look for in the proper apportioning of melody and text of like meter: first, to regard the characteristics of the hymn and tune; second, to examine the melody in its appropriateness for festivals and feast days. The first principle is immediately obvious and applies to the majority of hymns in our current hymnal whose character does not direct them for a specific time of the church year; the second principle is in need of closer substantiation.

The study of hymnology teaches us that a large portion of our most magnificent hymn music finds its roots in certain particular times of the church year and feast days. Our most significant melodies belong in origin and character to a festival of the church or a certain particular segment of the Christian life. Mostly, however, the former is the case. We have many marks that give the seasons of the church year their own quality; but aside from the act of salvation to be celebrated, the hymn and its melody form the characteristic mark of the seasons of the church year. The fact that the church seasons have need of such particular quality is essential to their nature. The way the earth looks, its clothing, instantly appears in our mind whenever a season of the natural year is mentioned. New leaves, buds and blossoms signify the spring; the beauty of flowers and ripening grain, the summer; produce, harvest-time; falling leaves, the autumn; and the snowy garments of the frigid earth, the winter. It is the same with the church year. When we hear “Gott sei Dank durch alle Welt” [Let the Earth Now Praise the Lord], to the customary melody “Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland” [Savior of the Nations, Come], we know that we are in the serious season of Advent. Among the classic melodies of the Christmas season belong “Gelobet seist du, Jesu Christ” [We Praise Thee, Jesus, at Thy Birth] and “Vom Himmel hoch, da komm ich her” [From Heav’n Above to Earth I Come]. When we hear the crown of all passion tunes, “Herzlich tut mich verlangen” with the words “O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden” [O Sacred Head, Now Wounded] or the singular “O Lamm Gottes unschuldig” [Lamb of God, Pure and Holy] sounded, it must be the season when Christians meditate on the Savior’s the sufferings and death; when the powerful tune “O Traurigkeit” [O Darkest Woe] is intoned, it must be Good Friday, and when the exultant cry, “Christ ist erstanden” [Christ Is Arisen] rings out, and “Auf, auf, mein Herz, mit Freuden” [Awake, My Heart, with Gladness] at its heels, it is the Easter jubilee. We could go on and on, but these examples will suffice.

According to these principles, then, the following melody rubrics have been selected and amended. It is not suggested that the right one was always found in every case according to these principles, since it is obviously far easier to characterize hymn texts than to discern the core essence of melodies. The committee welcomes notification of erroneous indication of melodies. It should be further noted that certain melodies that were burdened too heavily have been unburdened somewhat, and others of like character and fitting the text put in their place. Where the chorale books that we use contain proper melodies for specific hymns, these were indicated in almost every case, so that the wealth of our church’s melodies could always be recalled, and organists and congregations encouraged to think about rehearsing those melodies in cases where they are unfamiliar. However, a more closely fitting melody is always provided by which the hymn may be sung until the proper melody has come into practice. When two melodies are indicated for the same hymn, the first takes precedence. Perhaps in a later article the correction of the melody assignments will be explained in greater detail.

New melody specifications: 
2. Christus, der ist mein Leben. 3. Proper melody, or: Nun laßt uns Gott dem Herren. 13. Zeuch ein zu meinen Toren, or: Aus meines Herzens Grunde. 15. Proper melody, or: Vom Himmel hoch. 16. Ach Gott vom Himmelreiche, or: Valet will ich dir geben. 25. Nun danket alle Gott. 26. The repeats should be dropped. 29. Proper melody, or: Vom Himmel hoch. 33. Von Gott will ich nicht lassen, or: Helft mir Gotts Güte preisen. 34. Nun danket alle Gott, or: Was frag ich nach der Welt. 37. Proper melody. 42. Proper melody, or: Vom Himmel hoch. 43. Vom Himmel hoch, or: Lob sei dem allmächtigen Gott. 44. Proper melody, or:Valet will ich dir geben. 45. O Jesu Christ, dein Kripplein ist, or proper melody. 48. Proper melody, or: Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend. 49. Vom Himmel hoch, or proper melody. 50. Proper melody, or: Aus meines Herzens Grunde. 52. Zion klagt mit Angst und Schmerzen, or: Werde munter, mein Gemüte.2 57. O Welt, ich muß dich lassen. 60. Wo Gott zum Haus nicht gibt sein Gunst, or: Herr Jesu Christ, meins Lebens Licht. 61. Vom Himmel hoch, or: Lob sei dem allmächtigen Gott. 62. Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend. 66. Allein aus Gottes Wort, or: Durch Adams Fall ist ganz verderbt. 70. Da Jesus an dem Kreuze stund (or: In dich hab ich gehoffet, Herr.)3 71. Proper melody, or: Freu dich sehr, o meine Seele. 74. Herr Jesu Christ, du höchstes Gut, or: Herr, wie du willst. 77. Der am Kreuz ist meine Liebe, or: Freu dich sehr, o meine Seele. 78. Jesu, meines Lebens Leben, or: Jesu, der du meine Seele. 81. Proper melody (or: Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier). 83. Proper melody, or: O Gott, du frommer Gott. 85. Proper melody, or: Nun laßt uns den Leib begraben. 86. The repeats should be dropped. 87. The repeats should be dropped. 89. Proper melody, or: O Welt, ich muß dich lassen. 91. Freu dich sehr, o meine Seele, or: Der am Kreuz ist meine Liebe. 94. Proper melody (or: Herr Christ, der einig Gottssohn). 95. Nun laßt uns den Leib begraben, or: Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein. 101. Zeuch ein zu meinen Toren, or: Aus meines Herzens Grunde. 102.4 115. Herr Jesu Christ, meins Lebens Licht, or: Ach, bleib bei uns. Herr Jesu Christ. 118. Es ist das Heil uns kommen her. 121. Zeuch ein zu meinen Toren, or: Aus meines Herzens Grunde. 126. Proper melody, or: Erschienen ist der herrlich Tag. 127. Der Heilge Geist herniederkam, or: Erschienen ist der herrlich Tag. 128. Helft mir Gott Güte preisen, or: Aus meines Herzens Grunde. 131.5 135. Proper melody, or: Gott des Himmels und der Erden. 137. O daß ich tausend Zungen hätte (in 4/4 time), or: Wer nur den lieben Gott läßt walten. 139. Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend. 141. Proper melody, or: Aus meines Herzens Grunde. 143. Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend, or proper melody. 148. Proper melody, or: Aus meines Herzens Grunde. 150. Christ, unser Herr, zum Jordan kam (or: Es wollt uns Gott genädig sein). 153. Herr Jesu Christ, meins Lebens Licht.)6 155. Nun freut euch, lieben Christen gmein, or proper melody. 157. Es ist das Heil uns kommen her. 160. Allein auf Gottes Wort, or: O Herre Gott, dein göttlich Wort. 162. Proper melody, or: Wo Gott der Herr nicht bei uns hält (Nun freut euch, lieben Christen gmein). 163. Proper melody, or: Vater unser im Himmelreich. 166. Proper melody (or: Aus tiefer Not). 167. Proper melody, or: Herzliebster Jesu, was hast du verbrochen. 169. Ich dank dir, lieber Herre, or: Valet will ich dir geben. 170. Proper melody (or: Wo Gott der Herr nicht bei uns hält). 176. Erhalt uns, Herr, bei deinem Wort, or: Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein. 179. Erhalt uns, Herr, bei deinem Wort, or: Herr Jesu Christ, meins Lebens Licht. 181. Dies sind die heilgen zehn Gebot. 182. Dies sind die heilgen zehn Gebot. 186. Proper melody (or: Es wollt uns Gott genädig sein). 191. Christ, unser Herr, zum Jordan kam (or: Es wollt uns Gott genädig sein). 194. Herr, wie du willst, or: Herr Jesu Christ, du höchstes Gut. 197. Proper melody, or: Herr Jesu Christ, du höchstes Gut. 201. O Welt, sieh hier dein Leben, or: O Welt, ich muß dich lassen. 202. Ich sterbe taglich, or: Wer nur den lieben Gott läßt walten (G maj.). 206. Proper melody, or: Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend. 214. Proper melody (or: Herr, wie du willst). 215. Aus tiefer Not, or: Wo Gott der Herr nicht bei uns hält. 216. Proper melody (or: Es ist gewißlich an der Zeit). 218. Proper melody, or: Wer nur den lieben Gott läßt walten. 221. Proper melody, or: Jesu, meines Lebens Leben. 222. Jesus, meine Zuversicht, or: Meinen Jesum last ich nicht. 228. Aus tiefer Not, or: Herr, wie du willst. 230. Auf meinen lieben Gott. 234. O daß ich tausend Zungen hätte (4/4 time). 238. Herr Jesu Christ, du höchstes Gut, or: Es ist gewißlich an der Zeit. 239. Ich dank dir, lieber Herre, or: Valet will ich dir geben. 240. Proper melody, or: O daß ich tausend Zungen hätte. 245. Proper melody, or: Es ist das Heil uns kommen her. 250. Proper melody (or: Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland). 253. Proper melody, or: Gott des Himmels und der Erden. 254. Proper melody, or the melody of hymn no. 255. 263. Proper melody, or: O Gott, du frommer Gott. 264. Proper melody, or: Herr, ich habe mißgehandelt. 266. Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend. 267. Jesus, meine Zuversicht, or: Meinen Jesum last ich nicht. 272. Das Jesulein soll doch mein Trost, or: Durch Adams Fall ist ganz verderbt. 284. Proper melody, or: O Herre Gott, dein göttlich Wort. 288. Ach Gott vom Himmel, sieh darein (or: Es ist gewißlich an der Zeit). 293. Geduld, die solln wir haben, or: Ich dank dir, lieber Herre. 299. Herr Jesu Christ, meins Lebens Licht. 304. Nun laßt uns Gott dem Herren. 312. Proper melody, or: Ach, bleib bei uns, Herr Jesu Christ. (drop repeats) 313. Proper melody, or: Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend. 314. Proper melody (or: Herzlichster Jesu, was hast du verbrochen). 317. Wo Gott zum Haus nicht gibt sein Gunst. 320. Proper melody, or: Nun danket all und bringet Ehr. 329. Proper melody, or: O Welt, ich muß dich lassen. 333. Proper melody (Kunz-Brauer). 334. Proper melody, or: Herr Gott, dich loben alle wir. 339. Proper melody, or: Nun danket all und bringet Ehr. 342. Lob sei dem allmächtigen Gott, or: Herr Gott, dich loben alle wir. 344. Proper melody, or: Nun freut euch, lieben Christen gmein. 345. Lob sei dem allmächtigen Gott, or: Herr Gott, dich loben alle wir. 351. Proper melody, or: Lasset uns mit Jesu ziehen. 352. Proper melody, or: Herr Jesu Christ, meins Lebens Licht. 353. Wo Gott der Herr nicht bei uns hält, or: Herr, wie du willst. 358. Was frag ich nach der Welt. 361. Proper melody, or: Erhalt uns, Herr, bei deinem Wort. 362. Erhalt uns, Herr, bei deinem Wort, or: Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein. 367. Proper melody, or: Herzlich tut mich verlangen. 377. Proper melody, or: Durch Adams Fall ist ganz verderbt. 378. Von Gott will ich nicht lassen, or: Helft mir Gotts Güte preisen. 379. Zion klagt mit Angst und Schmerzen, or: Freu dich sehr, o meine Seele. 380. Zion klagt mit Angst und Schmerzen, or: Freu dich sehr, o meine Seele. 381. Proper melody (or: O Herre Gott, dein göttlich Wort.) (Drop repeats.) 385. Proper melody, or: Freu dich sehr, o meine Seele. 386. Proper melody (or: Herzliebster Jesu, was hast du verbrochen). 388. Was mein Gott will, das gscheh allzeit, or: Durch Adams Fall ist ganz verderbt. 395. Aus tiefer Not, or: Ach Gott vom Himmel, sieh darein. 396. Herr Jesu Christ, du höchstes Gut, or: Herr, wie du willst. 402. Wenn mein Stündlein vorhanden ist, or: Herr, wie du willst. 407. Proper melody, or: Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein. 410. Proper melody, or: O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort. 413. Zion klagt mit Angst und Schmerzen, or: Freu dich sehr, o meine Seele. 414. Proper melody, or: Zeuch ein zu meinen Toren. 418. Herr Jesu Christ, wahr Mensch und Gott, or: Nun laßt uns den Leib begraben. 419. Wenn mein Stündlein vorhanden ist, or: Herr, wie du willst. 422. O Welt, sieh hier dein Leben, or: O Welt, ich muß dich lassen. 428. Proper melody, or: Herr, wie du willst. 437. Ach Gott vom Himmelreiche, or: Valet will ich dir geben. 438. Proper melody, or: Es ist das Heil uns kommen her.

The Commission on the Hymnal: A. Crull.
O. Hattstädt.
J. Schlerf.
1On the subcommittee is Prof. E. Homann, the organist J.M. Theiß, H.F. Hölter, H. Ilse, and Prof. F.O. Reuter.
2If the hymn were restored to its original form, it would be sung to “Herr, ich habe mißgehandelt.”
3Only in the circumstance that the first melody for this hymn is very unfamiliar, the committee has considered providing the melody “In dich hab ich gehoffet, Herr,” which fits the meter, though not the rhyme, so as to make the hymn more singable. All parenthetical melody appointments are only to be seen as an aid until the first melody is in use.
4In most of the reformation hymnals, the double Hallelujah in the middle of everys stanza is dropped and replaced with a single Hallelujah at the end, so that the hymn can be sung to the Easter melody “Erschienen ist der herrlich Tag.” This also applies to #107.
5Only to be sung after the proper melody and not after “Ein feste Burg.” There is recently a sort of unspoken agreement in hymnals to leave the melody “Ein feste Burg” only to its proper text.
6When sung as a repentance and confession hymn, use “Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein.”

Translation: © 2012 Matthew Carver.

07 July 2012

Second Revision of KELG: Part II.

Lehre und Wehre.
Volume 54. 1908. (p. 448ff., 500ff.)

II. Index of Authors.

Regarding the information under the hymns in our hymnal, no certain method has been used. Either the hymn text is followed by the supposed year of composition, or the year of the author’s death, or the year when the hymn first appeared in print. A fourth system has even been adopted by many hymnals, which is namely to identify the respective hymnwriter’s biographical dates, the year of his birth and death. This system, however, is not to be recommended for the simple fact (as already noted in the first publication of the Hymnal Commission in the August edition of this monthly journal) that the biographical dates of a Luther, Gerhardt, Rist, Heerman, etc., would be so often repeated , that one would be forced to ask what the purpose was. No more to be recommended is the system observed in our hymnal whereby many hymns are followed by the year of their composition, since by only a slight few of the hymns can the time of creation be determined with any numeric certainty. Even the hymns of Luther cannot all be dated. The best system is the one that we find in the older hymnals. The hymn is followed only by the name of the author, but in the the appendix to the hymnal there is an index of authors in which everything interesting or edifying that is known about an author is detailed in a brief, compact manner—not only the essential personal details, his calling, title, and alias, but also his importance to the church or Christian life, an excellent book of edification that he wrote, the circle in which he moved, etc.

This commission recommends that our hymnal be supplemented with such an index. Many congregants would be surprised to learn from this index that those who wrote our hymns came from all different walks of life. Of course the majority of them were theologians, but scattered among these are also many pious laymen, persons of high station as well as common folk, tutors of princes and teachers of peasants, mayors and statesmen, soldiers and poets of worldly renown, musicians, doctors and lawyers, as well as ladies of the nobility.Among these poets are men who exercised a far-reaching influence on the development of the Kingdom of God, and also those who, unheeded by the world, served their God in silence, and of whom we might well have known nothing, had they not left us one or more hymns. How useful such an index would be for school also! Of course, this index can, by nature of the case, only be limited to the simplest information. But precisely because of its simplicity, it might easily be resorted to briefly on many occasions in school, and no doubt help to affix the live words of the teacher and assist in remembering them. A sketch of the sort of hymnwriter index that the commission has in mind is presented here following. That the commission has taken every precaution for the reliability of the information cannot be especially authenticated; much of the more or less unfamiliar information rests nevertheless on solid sources.

Index of the Authors of our Hymns.
“Let us praise the renowned and our fathers one after the other. They have learned the music and composed spiritual hymns” (Sir. 44:1, 5).

Agricola, M. Johann (Schnitter), born 1492 in Eisenach, died 1566 as court preacher in Berlin, sometime docent in Wittenberg, later came into conflict with Luther. His hymn, #273, is a proper supplication for a Christian life.

Alber, Dr. Erasmus (Alberus), born ca. 1500 in Wetterau, student and friend of Luther, died 1553 as superintendent in Mecklenburg, led a passionate life and was full of zeal for the Lutehran church. His hymns, #122, #310 (?), #312, #442, were probably composed by him in low German.

Albin, Johann Georg (Albinus), born 1624 in Unterneißa near Weißenfels, died 1679 as pastor in Naumburg. #397.

Ämilie Juliane, duchess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, born 1637, wife of the duke Albert Anton, died 1706, wrote 587 hymns, among them a morning hymn before Communion, #196, a hymn for the end of the week, #322, a hymn of praise, #336, a hymn for inclement weather #392, and a hymn for dying #429.

Anark, lord of Wildenfels, died 1539 in Altenburg. #161 (?).

Arends, Wilhelm Erasmus, born 1672, died 1721 as pastor in Halberstadt. His mighty battle hymn for spiritual warfare and victory is hymn #282.

Arnschwanger, M. Johann Christoph, born 1625 in Nürnberg, died 1696 as senior and archdeacon in his native city. #164.

Assig, Hans von, born 1650 in Breslau, died 1694 as palace captain and chamberlain in Schwiebus. For the consecration of the church in Schwiebus he wrote hymn #168.

Bapzien, Michael, born 1628, was cantor in Hayn in the principality of Liegnitz and Königsberg, 1669 in Thorn, where he died 1693. # 80.

Becker, Dr. Kornelius, born in Leipzig 1561, died there 1604 as professor of theology and pastor at St. Nicolai, put the entire Psalter into verse. His 100th psalm we possess in the Hannover version; it is hymn #10, with beautiful refrain: “Gott loben, das ist unser Amt.” #365 (st. 7), #414.

Behm, Martin (Behem, Behemb, Bohemus), born 1557 in Labau, died there 1622 as senior pastor. Three of his hymns are in our hymnal: the Epiphany hymn #59, the dying hymn #85, and the morning hymn #303.

Bienemann, Dr. Kaspar (Melissander), born in Nürnberg 1540, tutor of the prince at the court of Weimar, died 1591 as general superintendent in Altenburg. Hymn #270, a heartfelt prayer to be sustained in the true faith and for a blessed end, he composed in 1573 when he was chased out of his office in Weimar by the Calvinists.

Birken, Sigismund von (Betulius), native of Wildensten, Bohemia (near Eger) in 1626, tutor at vareious courts, fled Bohemia with his parents because of the faith, died as private schoilar in Nürnberg 1681. His hymns have found a home in our hymnal as #76 and #278.

Blaurer, Thomas, studied in Wittenberg ca. 1520, later converted to the Reformed church, was mayor and imperial judge. #189.

Burmeister, Franz Joachim, born 1633 in Lüneburg, where he became pastor 1670 and died 1672. #403.

Clausnitzer, M. Tobias, born 1618 in Thurn, Saxony, died 1684 as palatinate consistoriate in Weiden, Upper Palatinate, wrote hymns #8 (sts. 1–3) and #184. Hymn #74 is a reworking of one of his hymns.

Crasselius, Bartholomäus, born 1667 in Glauchau, Saxony, where he died 1724; was a student of A.H. Francke and pastor in Düsseldorf. From him we have the invocation of the Spirit and truth, hymn #265.

Creutziger, Elisabeth (Cruciger), died 1535, wife of the professor of theology Caspar Creutziger in Wittenberg, a friend of Luther’s. It is from this lover of spiritual hymnody that the first Jesus hymn of the Lutheran church, #24, derives.

Dach, M. Simon, born 1605 in Memel, died 1659 as professor of poetry at the university of Königsberg, was the chief of that city’s circle of poets. Three burial hymns by him survive till today: #410, #424, #437. He wrote the justification hymn #239 upon the departure of Duke Achatius von Dohna.

Decius, Nikolaus, is supposed to have written hymns #1 and #86. But according to more recent research the author was probably either Nikolaus von Hof or Joachim Slüter, the publisher of the earliest Low German hymnal of 1525, in which both hymns first appeared.

Denicke, David, born 1603, native of Zittau, Upper Lusatia, consistory advisor in Hannover, from 1646 on published an influential Hannoverian hymnal with Justus Gesenius, in which for the first time older hymns appeared principally and methodically reworked according to newer taste; died 1680 in Hannover. Since Gesenius and Denicke did not distinguish their own hymns in their Hannover hymnal, the hymns of these men appeared almost entirely as anonymoous in the 17th century. #10, 70, 160, 178, 182, 191, 244, 277, 287, 396.

Derschau, Dr. Bernhard von (Derschow), born 1591 in Königsberg, where he died 1639 as professor of theology, consistory advisor, and head pastor. #199.

Deßler, Wolfgang Christoph, born 1660 in Nürnberg, died 1722 as assistant pastor there, wrote hymn #262 [My Soul’s Best Friend], which has rendered him unable to be forgotten.

Dilherr, M. Johann Michael, born 1604 in Themar in Hennebergisch, professor at Jena, then college director at Nürnberg and finally pastor and librarian there, collaborator on the Weimar Bible project, died 1669. #296.

Drese, Adam, born 1620 in Thuringia, died 1701 as the princely Schwarzburg music director at Arnstadt in Thuringia. From him we get hymn #260 along with its melody which helped quickly to spread the hymn.

Eber, Dr. Paul, born 1511 in Kitzingen, lower Franconia, friend of Luther and Melanchthon, died 1569 as professor of theology, general superintendent and city rector of Wittenberg. As among the hymns of dying the hymn #407 claims a high place, so does #387 among the hymns of consolation. Besides these hymns #50 and 156 are from him. The former contains in its first letters of the stanzas the name of his daughter Helena (acrostic).

Fischer, Christoph (Vischer), born in Joachimsthal, Bohemia, died 1600 as court pastor and general superintendent in Celle. His hymn #95 is inserted [eingefügt] as his “exposition of the Passion.”

Fleming, Dr. Paul, born 1609 in Hartenstein, Saxony; in 1633 took part in a six year ambassadorship to Russia and Persia, during the beginning of which he composed hymn #329, and as a doctor in Hamburg, died 1640 as a result of the exertions of this journey.

Flitner, Johann (Flittner), born 1618 in Suhl, was deacon in Greifswald, died 1678 as emigrant in Stralsund. #252.

Franck, Johann, born 1618, died 1677 as national elder of Lower Lusatia and mayor of his native city Guben; after Paul Gerhardt was the most important hymnwriter of his time; a student of Simon Dach. #64, 210, 251.

Franck, Michael, born 1609 in Schleusingen, was forced to end his studies and became a baker, later teacher in the city school of Koburg, where he died in 1667. #284.

Franck, Salomo, born 1659 in Weimar, died there in 1725 as head consistorial secretary, w

Freundt, Kornelius, born in Plauen in the Voigtland ca. 1530; was cantor in Borna near Leipzig,1565 in Zwickau, where he died in 1591. #19.

Freystein, Dr. Johann Burkhard, born 1671 in Weißenfels, died 1718 as court counselor and justicial advisor in Dresden. #279.

Fritsch, Dr. Ahasverus, born 1629 in Mücheln in the province of Saxony, chancellor and consistory president in Rudolstadt, where he encouraged both countesses Ludmilla and Emily Juliane of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt in the composition of spiritual poetry; died in that place in 1701.

Fröhlich, Bartholomäus, pastor of Perleberg, Priegnitz 1580–1590. #402.

Füger, Kaspar, the “court preacher of the old wife of duke Henry,” died in Dresden toward the end of the 16th century. Among his spiritual hymns the Christmas hymn #45 is the most famous.

Funcke, Friederich, born in 1642 in Nossen in the Ore Mountains, cantor in Perleberg and Lüneburg, 1694 pastor in Römstedt near Lüneburg where he died in 1699, was musical artist and singer, as well as writer of 15 hymns. #124.

Gedicke, Lampertus, born 1683 in Gardelegen in the Old March, died 1735 as the resolute soldier-pastor of Friedrich Wilhelm I at the garrison church of Berlin. #383.

Gerhardt, Paul, after Luther the greatest of the hymnwriters of the Lutheran church, born on March 12, 1607 in Gräfenhainichen near Wittenberg, studied Wittenberg, was active from 1643 to 1651 as candidate in Berlin, 1651–1657 provost in Mittenwald, 1657 deacon at St. Nicolai in Berlin, was ejected from his office in 1667 because of his Lutheran confession, from 1669 archdeacon in Lübben on the Spree, where he died June 7, 1676. #20, 93, 40, 44, 46, 54, 56, 73, 84, 89, 91, 97, 113, 130, 141, 150, 187, 200, 248, 256, 274, 290, 291, 304, 319, 338, 339, 340, 347, 351, 355, 366, 370, 375, 379, 401, 409, 419, 432.

Gesenius, Justus, born 1601 in Esbeck in Hannover, died 1673 as general superintendent and head court preacher in Hannover. (See notes on Denicke.) #37, 77, 94, 112, 140, 149, 157, 188, 246 (st. 6), 360.

Gotter, Ludwig Andreas, born 1661, died 1735 as court counselor in his native city Gotha. His hymn #269 is fervent prayer for the gifts of the Holy Ghost.

Gramann, Dr. Johann (Graumann, Poliander), born 1487 in Neustadt, Bavaria, Eck’s secretary at the Leipzig Disputations with Luther in 1519; then an adherent of Luther, and, recommended by the latter to Königsberg, died there as pastor in 1541. His famous reworking of Psalm 103, #348 (1–4) is the earliest hymn of praise of the Lutheran church.

Groß, Dr. Johann (Major), born 1564 in Reinstädt near Orlamünde, 1592 deacon in Weimar, 1605 pastor and superintendent in Jena, 1611 at the same time professor of theology, collaborator on the Weimar Bible work, died there in 1654. #212 (?).

Greif, Andreas (Gryphius), born 1616 in Groß-Glogau, died there in 1664 as agent [Syndikus] of the local estates. While chiefly a worldly poet, he also authored excellent spiritual hymns. #169.

Hagen, Peter (Hagius), born 1569 in Heiligenbeil, East Prussia, died 1620 as headmaster of the cathedral school in Königsberg. #61, 66.

Heermann, Johann, born 1585 in Raubten, Silesia; from 1611 pastor in Köben near Glogau, suffered much cross with his congregation and at home during the tribulations of the Thirty Years’ War, died 1647 in Lissa, Poland. He is the most important hymn-writer of the period between Luther and Gerhardt. #47, 75. 105, 152, 163, 175. 176, 198, 206, 219, 223, 223, 229, 230, 246, 257, 272, 281, 237 (st. 7), 238, 308, 318, 373, 378, 334, 385, 390, 405, 413, 421; #77 and 277 are reworkings of his hymns.

Heider, Friedrich Christian, born 1677 in Merseburg, died 1754 as pastor in Zörbig bei Halle. # 202.

Held, Heinrich, born 1620 in Guhrau, Silesia, solicitor in Fraustadt and Stettin, died 1659 as city secretary of Altdamm, Stettin. Both hymns # 23 and 135 assure him steadfast remembrance.

Helder, Bartholomäus, born in Gotha, from 1607 to 1616 teacher in Freimar near Gotha, died 1635 as pastor in Remstädt near Gotha; also a composer. # 102, 139 (?), 153.

Helmbold, N. Ludwig, born 1532 in Mühlhausen, Thuringia; died 1593 als superintendent and pastor in that place. His hymn of comfort # 374, written during the plague in Erfurt, established his name no less than did his hymn of praise # 309 and his catechetical hymn # 179.

Herberger, Valerius, born 1562, died 1627 as pastor in his native Fraustadt, Posen; as his pupil, Johann Heermann, a bearer of the cross in the troubles of the Thirty Years’ War, wrote innumerable works of edification. The glorious hymn # 426, into which wove his baptismal name in the beginning letters of the individual stanzas, he wrote in 1613 while the plague was dominating Fraustadt.

Herbert, Petrus, died 1571 as assisting elder [Konsenior] of the Unity of Bohemian-Moravian Brethren in Eibenschütz. # 314.

Hermann, Nikolaus, cantor in Joachimstal, Bohemia; friend of his pastor, Johann Mathesius, died 1561 at a ripe old age. # 30, 103, 192, 294. 317. 330. 423. 431.

Hermann, N. Zacharias, born 1643 in Namslau, Silesia, died 1716 as pastor and inspector in Lissa, Poland. Losing several children one after another was no doubt the inspiration for his hymn # 430.

Herrnschmidt, S. Johann Daniel, born 1675 in Bopsingen, Württemberg, died 1723 in Halle as professor of theology and codirector of the Franconian foundations. A highly poetic outpouring of every verse of Psalm 146 is his hymn # 441.
Herzog, Johann Friedrich, born 1647 in Dresden, died 1699 as solicitor in that place. as student in Wittenberg he wrote the hymn # 320.
Heune, Johann (Gigas), born 1514 in Nordhausen, pupil and friend of Justus Jonas, died 1581 as pastor in Schweidnitz, Silesia. # 353.
Hippen, Johann Heinrich von, born in Wohlau, Silesia. 1676 Limburg counselor and court martial, wrote the morning hymn # 326.
Hodenberg, Bodo von, born 1604, died 1650 as Landdrost in Osterode am Harz. # 315 (?).
Homburg, Ernst Christoph, born 1605 in Mühla near Eisenach, died 1631 as solicitor in Naumburg. # 79, 116.
Hubert, Konrad, born 1507 in Bergzabern, died 1577 as deacon at St. Thomas in Straßburg, personal secretary of reformed theologian Bucer. # 213 (1—3).
Job, Johann, born 1664 in Frankfurt a. M., died 1736 as councilman and builder in Leipzig. # 90.
Jonas, Justus, born 1493 in Nordhausen, as Professor in Wittenberg one of the most diligent collaborators with Luthers, first evangelical superintendent in Halle, 1546 banished as a result of the Schmalkaldic War, died 1555 as superintendent in Eisfeld, Thuringia. # 159 (st. 4–5), 438.
Keimann, Christian, born 1607 in Pankraz, Bohemia, died 1662 as headmaster of the college in Zittau. # 13. 255.
Kinner, Dr. Samuel, born 1603 in Breslau, doctor in Brieg, died 1668. His Supper hymn # 197 is a glorious confession of the biblical doctrine of the Supper over against the Zwinglian enthusiasts.
Kolrose, Johann, German language teacher in Basel, wo he is supposed to have died ca. 1560. # 300.
Kramer, Moritz, born 1646 in Ammerswort in Holstein, died 1702 as pastor in Marne in Süderitmarschen, was a decided opponent of Pietism. # 129.
Lackmann, Peter, born 1659 (?) in Lübeck, pupil A. H. Francke’s, died 1713 as head pastor in Oldenburg, Holstein. # 264 (?).
Laurenti, Laurentius (Lorenz Lorenzen), born 1660 in Husum, Schleswig; died 1722 as music director and cantor at the cathedral in Bremen. # 224.
Lehr, Leopold Franz Friedrich, born 1709 in Kronberg near Frankfurt a. M., died 1744 in Magdeburg as deacon in the Lutheran church in Köthen. His most beautiful hymn, which has been translated into many languages, is the justification hymn # 242.

Linzner, Georg, born in Kamenz in Upper Lusatia, was ca. 1630 personal tutor in Breslau. # 264 (?).
Liscow, Salomo, born 1640 in Niemitzsch, Lower Lusatia, died 1689 as deacon in Würzen, Saxony. # 53, 203. 259. 393.
Lochner, Karl Friedrich, born 1634 in Nürnberg, died 1697 as pastor in Fürth. # 286 (?).
Löscher. Dr. Valentin Ernst, born 1673 in Sondershausen, died 1749 as chief consistory advisor and superintendent in Dresden, a man both resolute and gentle of manner, of a well-rounded education, who labored and contended a great deal for the things of the Lord. st. 17 of # 434.
Löwenstern, Matthäus Apelles von, born 1594 in Neustadt, Upper Silesia; of a middle-class family by the name of Löwe, granted a title of nobility by Emperor Ferdinand II., died 1648 in Breslau as imperial advisor and state counselor of the Duke of Münsterberg and Öls. His hymn # 167 is a prayer for bodily and spiritual peace.

The Commission on the Hymnal: A. Crull.
O. Hattstädt.
J. Schlerf.
(To be continued.)

II. Index of Authors

Ludämilie Elisabeth, countess of Schwarzburg-Rudolsadt, born 1640, died 1672 as wife of the count Christian Wilhelm von Schwarzburg-Sondershausen. #253, 372, 394.

Luther, Dr. Martin, founder and master of German hymnody, born in Eisleben, Nov. 10, 1483, died in the same place, Feb. 18, 1546. He formed his hymns partly in a free manner, partly by translation of Latin hymni or integration of old German stanzas or borrowing of biblical excerpts. # 15, 21, 36, 41, 42, 60, 65, 99, 110, 132, 134, 136, 142, 143, 145, 147, 158, 159 (sts. 1–3), 162, 166, 170, 171, 177, 180, 181, 183, 185, 186, 195, 205, 214, 243, 328, 337, 368, 399, 416.

Magdeburg, Johann, born 1525, Gardelegen in the Altmark, evangelical preacher in Esserding, Austria, exiled thence in 1583, pastor in Essen until 1587. #381 (st. 1), the first words of which used to be inscribed on many houses.

Mathesius, Johann, born 1504, Rochlitz, Saxony; a companion at Luther’s home and table while studying in Wittenberg, worked as pastor of the German Lutheran church in Joachimstal, Bohemia, where he died in 1565. His homiletic biography of Luther is among the popular books of our church. #361.

Mentzer, Johann, born 1658, Jahma, Lusatia; died 1734 as pastor in Chemnitz in the same region. His magnificent psalm of jubilation, #349, is a brilliant demonstration of his pious Christian outlook in all his afflictions.

Meyfart, Dr. Johann Matthäus, born 1590, Walwinkel, Gotha; died 1642, as professor of theology and pastor in Erfurt. During the oppression of the Thirty Years’ War he composed his hymn of longing for the heavenly Jerusalem, #443.

Möckel, Johann Friedrich, born 1661, Kulmbach; died 1729, as pastor of Steppbach in Bayreuth. #302.

Molanus, Dr. Gerhard Walther, born 1633 Hameln; died 1722, as abbot of Loccum cloister in Hannover. #203.

Moller, Martin, born 1547 in Kroppstädt by Wittenberg; died 1606 as senior pastor in Görlitz; was a man practiced in suffering, who in the letters of his name M. M. left the constant warning, “Memento mori” (Remember thou shalt die). #225, 258, 342, 352, 362.

Möller, Johann Joachim, born 1660, Sommerfeld; died 1733 as archdeacon in Krossen. #108, 235.

Mühlmann, Dr. Johann, born 1573, Pegau; died 1613 as professor of theology and archdeacon at St. Nikolai, Leipzig; fought the papists and Calvinists with great zeal from both the pulpit and the teacher’s lectern.

Mylius, Johann, from Themar, 1596, in Thuringia. #62.

Nachtenhöfer, Kaspar Friedrich, born 1624, Halle; died 1685 as pastor of Koburg. #27.

Neander, Joachim, the most important poet of the Reformed church in the age of Pietism; born 1650, Bremen; died 1680 as morning preacher at St. Martini, Bremen, wrote the popular, fervent hymn of praise #341.

Neumann, Kaspar, born 1648, Breslau; died 1715 in the same place as pastor of St. Elisabeth, professor, and inspector of the church. Among his 39 hymns, three have become common property of the singing Church: # 109, 268, 316.

Neumark, Georg, born 1612, Langesalza; died 1681 as librarian and archivist in Weimar. His worldly hymns are forgotten, but not his hymn of comfort, # 382, and his responses in hymn #417.

Neumeister, Erdmann, born 1671, Üchteritz by Weißenfels; died 1756 as head pastor at St. Jacobi in Hamburg; was an opponent of Pietism and Unionism. #222, 241.

Nicolai, Dr. Philipp, born 1556 in Mengeringhausen, Waldeck, where he assisted his father in the preaching office; in 1583 became pastor in Hardeck an der Ruhr, and in 1586, of the secret Lutheran congregation in Cologne; 1587 court preacher in Wildungen, and from 1596, in Unna, where, during the time of the plague, he wrote his Joyous Mirror of Eternal Life, as well as both of his famous hymns, #261 and 436; from 1601 head pastor at St. Katharine, Hamburg, where he died in 1608.

Niedlung, Johann, born 1602, Sangerhausen; 1626 was teacher at the college in Altenburg, where he died in 1668 as Scholae senior. #106, 125.

Olearius, Dr. Johann, hymnologist of our church, born in Halle, 1611; general superintendent and senior court preacher of duke August of Saxony in Halle; later in the same position in Weißenfels, where he died in 1684. His hymn #5 serves as a silent prayer upon entering church. #35, 63, 68, 137 (?), 144, 204, 232, 275, 327, 380, 391.

Olearius, Dr. Johann Gottfried, nephew of the preceding, born 1635, Halle, died 1711 as superintendent and consistory advisor in Arnstadt. #26, 151.

Öler, Ludwig, lived around 1530, canon of the St. Thomasstift, Strasbourg. #12.
Opitz, Martin, born 1597, Bunzlau; died 1639, Danzig, as secretary and historian of the King of Poland. It is to his efforts for the German poetic artform that our current hymns owe their greater smoothness. #57.

Pfeffer, Paul, born 1651, Neustadt, Principality of Glogau; died after 1710 as mayor of Budissin (Bautzen). #424 (the responding stanzas).

Pfefferkorn, Georg, born in the village of Iffta outside Eisenach; tutor to the prince at the court of Duke Ernst the Pious; died 1732 as superintendent and consistory assessor of Gräfentonna by Gotha. #285.

Prätorius, Benjamin, born 1636, Obergreislau by Weißenfels; died 1674 as pastor in Großlissa by Delitzsch. #283.

Quirsfeld, Johann, born 1642, Dresden, died 1686 as deacon in Pirna. #422.

Reimann, Georg, born 1570, Leobschütz, Upper Silesia; died 1615 as professor of rhetoric in Königsberg. #114, 155.

Reusner, Adam, (Reißner), born 1496 in Windelsheim, Bavarian Swabia; student of Reuchlin; private secretary of field commander Georg von Frundsberg; follower of Schwenkfeld; died ca. 1575 in the place of his birth.

Rinckart, Martin, born 1586, Eilenburg, Saxony, where he died in 1649; like Herberger and Heermann, he was a faithful leader of his flock during the appalling tribulations visited upon it the Thirty Years’ War. He probably wrote his hymn of thanks, #346, in the year 1630. Hymn #146 can also be trace back to a composition of Rinckart.

Ringwald, Bartholomäus, born 1530, Frankfurt an der Oder; died 1599 as pastor in Langenfeld, Neumark; a zealous defender of Lutheran doctrine and a faithful witness of the truth, who unflinchingly chastised the immorality of his day. #138, 216, 433.

Rist, Johann, writer of many splendid hymns; born 1607, Ottensen by Hamburg; died 1667 as pastor in Wedel, Holstein. Through his hymns he comforted and edified many thousands during the difficult times of the Thirty Years’ War, and continues to do so. # 13, 52, 67, 88, 120, 194, 207, 221, 238, 321, 434.

Rodigast, Samuel, born 1649, Gröben by Jena, died 1708 as headmaster of the Gray Cloister college in Berlin. His only hymn, #376, which however is heard in the whole singing Church, based on Deut. 32:4, was written in 1675 in Jena, for the consolation of an ailing cantor.

Rosenmüller, Johannes, from electoral Saxony, music director in Leipzig and Wolfenbüttel; died 1686. #397 (?).

Rothe, Johann Andreas, born 1688, Lissa by Görlitz; [Count] Zinzendorf’s pastor in Berthelsdorf; died 1758 as Lutheran pastor in Thommendorf in Upper Lusatia; was a powerful preacher of great pastoral faithfulness. He lives on in the Church through his hymn, #240.

Ruopp, Johann Friedrich, a native of Strasbourg; died 1708 as adjunct of the theological faculty in Halle. #266.

Sacer, Dr. jur. Gottfried Wilhelm, born 1635 in Naumburg, Saxony; died 1699 as private attorney in Wolfenbüttel. #14, 82, 121, 131, 425.

Saubert, Dr. Johann, the younger; born 1638 in Nürnberg; died 1688 as professor of theology and superintendent in Altdorf; published the Nürnberg Hymnal, which included his hymn, #393.

Schade, Johann Kaspar, born 1666, Kühndorf by Meiningen, from 1691 deacon at St. Nikolai, Berlin, a fellow minister with Spener; died in that place 1698. #81, 369.

Schalling, Martin, born 1532, Straßburg, died 1608 as pastor in Nürnberg; for his own consolement wrote hymn #271.

Scheffler, Johann, born 1624 in Breslau, from 1649 physician of the Duke of Öls; 1653 deserted to the Roman church under the name Angelus Silesius and became a vehement opponent of the Lutheran church. #72, 250, 280.

Scheidt, Dr. Christian Ludwig, born 1709, Waldenburg by Schwäbisch-Hall; died 1761 as court advisor and librarian in Hannover; was well known for his hymn, #234, which first appeared in 1743.

Schenk, Hartmann, born 1634, Ruhla by Eienach; died 1681 as pastor in Ostheim vor der Rhön. #9.

Schirmer, Michael, born 1606, Leipzig; a friend of Paul Gerhardt; died 1673 as joint headmaster of the Gray Cloister college in Berlin; a hymn-writer much used to bearing his cross, called the “German Job.” #418. Hymn #140 is a reworking of one of his hymns.

Schlicht, Levin Johann, born 1681 in Kalbe in the Altmark; teacher at the paedogogium in Halle; died 1723 as a pastor in Berlin; was able to speak Latin and understand Greek and Hebrew as early as ten years old. #311.

Schmidt, Christian, born 1683, Stolberg in Misnia; died 1754 as pastor at the Bergkirche outside Eilenburg. #332.

Schmolck, Benjamin, born 1672 in Brauchitschdorf by Liegnitz; died 1737 as senior pastor and inspector in Schweidnitz; known as a publisher of devotional literature. Of his 1,200 hymns, our hymnal has #190, 247, 267, 331.

Schneegaß, Cyriakus, born 1546, Busleben by Gotha; died 1597 as pastor in Friedrichroda by the Thuringian Forest; had a thorough knowledge of music; his spouse was a grandniece of Luther’s. #49, 51, 388.

Schröder, Johann Heinrich, born 1667 in Springe by Hannover; died 1699 as pastor in Meseburg by Magdeburg. #249.

Schütz, Johann Jakob, born 1640 in Frankfurt am Main; practiced law; died 1690 in the same place; at the end of his life fell under the influence of the Enthusiasts and renounced the Lutheran church. #350.

Selnecker, Dr. Nikolaus, born 1530 in Hersbruck by Nürnberg; studied under Melanchthon; died 1592 as professor of theology, superintendent, and pastor at St. Thomas in Leipzig; co-author of the Formula of Concord; a much-persecuted, steadfast confessor, whose prayer for constancy, so poignant in its simplicity, was granted by God. #193, 298, 420. Hymn # 165 was partly written by him.

Sonnemann, Ernst, 1608 became joint headmastor of Celle; 1661 pastor in Eimbeck; died there in 1670. #117 (?), reworked after Wegelin.

Spengler, Lazarus, supporter of the Reformation, born 1479, Nürnberg; councilor and jurist in his native city, where he died in 1534. His hymn #236 was once of similar meaning for the Reformation as the hymn of the following author.

Speratus, Dr. Paul, born 1484 in Rötlen, Swabia; was already openly preaching the Gospel from 1519 in Würzburg and Salburg; 1522 in Stephans cathedral in Vienna and in Iglau, for which he was put in prison in Olmütz in 1523, where he wrote his hymn, #237, which he sent to his congregation; the same year came to Wittenberg, at Luther’s recommendation became court preacher of Duke Albert of Prussia; was especially active there in the introduction of the Reformation; died 1551 as Lutheran bishop of Pomesania in Marienwerder.

Stegmann, Dr. Josua, born 1588 in Sulzfeld by Meiningen; died 1632 as professor of theology and superintendent in Rinteln; was force to endure great affliction during the time of the Thirty Years’ War, moving from placed to place as an exile. #2.

Stockmann, Ernst, born 1634 in Lützaen, died 1712 as senior consistory advisor and church advisor in Eisenach. #356.

Thebesius, Adam, born 1596 in Seifersdorf in the principality of Liegnitz; died 1652 as pastor in Liegnitz. #83.

Thilo, Valentin, the Elder, born 1579 in Zinten, East Prussia; died 1620 from the plague as deacon in Königsberg. #33 (sts. 1–3).

Tietze, Christoph (Titius), born 1641 in Wilkau by Breslau; died 1703 as pastor in Hersbruck, Nürnberg. #218, 371, 427.

Walther, Johann, the old Luther-cantor, became court cantor in Torgau around 1520; Luther’s assistant in the institution of the German mann and in the shaping of the evangelical church melodies; died after 1566 as kapellmeister in Dresden. His hymn on eternity, #16, shows that Walther was not only a musician, but also a poet of God’s grace.

Wandersleben, Martin, born 1608 in Wassertalheim, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen; died 1668 as superintendent of Waltershausen in the Gothaischen. #299.

Weidenheim, Johann; the personal details of this man who lived around the turn of the 17th century are unknown. #215.

Weise, Christian, born 1642 in Zittau; from 1676 professor of politics, rhetoric, and poetry in Weißenfels; died 1708 as headmaster of the college in his native city. #231.

Weiße, Michael, born in Neiße, Silesia; 1531 became priest and representative of the German congregation of the Bohemian Brethren in Landeskron, Bohemia; in the same year published the first German hymnal of the Bohemian Brethren; died in that place in 1534, a little over 40 years old. #22, 29, 32, 43, 100, 417, 440.

Weissel, Georg, born 1590 in Domnau, East Prussia; died 1635 as pastor in Königsberg; #31, 58, 148, 245. Hymn #112 is a reworking of one of his hymns.

Werner, Georg, born 1589 in Preußisch-Holland; died 1643 as deacon in Königsberg. #55, 101, 128.

Wiesenmeyer, Burkhard, ca. 1640 teacher at the Gray Cloister college in Berlin; reworker of older hymns; #305.

Zehner, Dr. Samuel, born 1594 in Suhl; died 1635 as superintendent in Schleusingen; wrote hymn #211 in the year 1633 while the Croats were laying siege to the place of his residence.

Zesen, Philipp von, born 1619 in Priorau by Dessau; led the life of a man of letters without a permanent position; died 1689 in Hamburg. #38.

Ziegler, Dr. jur. Kaspar, an authority on law of the first degree, born 1621 in Leipzig; died 1690 in Wittenberg as professor of law. #25.

Zihn, Johann Friedrich, born 1650 in Suhl; died 1719 as archdeacon in his native city. #359.

Zwick, Johannes, born in Constance ca. 1496; died 1542 as an evangelical pastor of his native city in Bischofszell, which he had committed himself to serve for the sake of the local congregation during the time of the plague. #118.

The authors of the following hymns and stanzas are unknown:
Hymns: # 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, 17, 28, 34, 43, 69, 74, 78, 87, 92, 96, 98, 104, 107, 111, 115, 119, 123, 126, 127, 133, 146, 154, 165, 172, 173, 201, 209, 220, 226, 227, 233, 276, 239, 292, 295, 301, 306, 307, 313, 323, 324, 325, 333, 343, 344, 345, 357, 353, 363, 377, 386, 389, 395, 400, 404, 408, 411, 412, 415, 423, 439.

Stanzas: # 8 (st. 4), 10 (st. 7), 21 (st. 1), 33 (st. 4), 50 (st. 7), 35 (st. 7), 83 (st. 1), 136 (st. 1), 174 (sts. 2–3), 177 (st . 2), 195 (st . 1), 213 (st . 4), 320 (st . 10), 348 (st . 5), 381 (st . 2. 3), 417 (st . 8), 423 (st . 5).

The Commission on the Hymnal: 
A. Crull.
O. Hattstädt.
J. Schlerf.

Translation: © 2012 Matthew Carver.